v) Roofing Slab of Septic Tank Circular manholes of 500mm clear diameter are provided for inspection and desludging. In case of rectangular opening clear size is kept as 600X450mm.
What is the size of a septic tank?
- Most septic tanks are rectangular and measure about 5 feet by 8 feet. Probe around the tank to locate its edges and mark the perimeter of the rectangle.
What is the diameter of a septic tank?
A typical residential septic tank is usually about 4.5 feet wide x 8.0 feet long x 6 feet tall. Your septic tank may be a different size however.
How big is a typical septic tank cover?
Dig Up The Lids Depending on your septic tank setup, your system may include two or three lids. Septic tanks are typically rectangular in shape and measure approximately 5 feet by 8 feet. In most cases, septic tank components including the lid, are buried between 4 inches and 4 feet underground.
How big is a septic tank drainage field?
Drainage fields must be a minimum of 10m from a watercourse, 50m from a water abstraction point and 15m from a building. They should also be sufficiently far away enough from any other drainage fields, mounds or soakaways so that the soakage capacity of the ground is not exceeded.
What is the normal shape of septic tank?
The shape of the tank is circular. Explanation: The shape of the septic tank can be rectangular or cylindrical. Septic tanks are used for wastewater with a high content of settleable solids, typically for effluent from domestic sources.
Are there different size septic tanks?
Septic tank sizes are measured in gallons, based on the amount of sewage the tank can hold. Standard tank sizes are typically 1,000, 1,250 and 1,500 gallons, and these suit most homes. Typically, the minimum tank liquid capacity of a one- to three-bedroom home is 1,000 gallons.
How thick are septic tank lids?
A septic tank installed before 1975 will have a single 24-inch concrete lid in the center of the rectangle. A two-compartment tank installed after 1975 will have two lids of either fiberglass or polyethylene, centered at opposite ends of the rectangle.
How wide are septic tank lids?
During the search, keep an eye out for a circular lid approximately two feet wide. Septic tank lids are typically green or black plastic; sometimes they are made of concrete. It’s not always easy to find the lid, though, as unkempt grass, dirt, or debris can conceal the septic tank lid.
How deep are septic tank lids?
Often, septic tank lids are at ground level. In most cases, they have buried anywhere from four inches to four feet underground.
How big should my drain field be?
A typical septic drainfield trench is 18 to 30 inches in depth, with a maximum soil cover over the disposal field of 36″; or per the USDA, 2 feet to 5 feet in depth.
How far should drain field be from septic tank?
Common guidelines require at least 50′ clearance distance between a well and a septic system tank or 150′ between a well and a septic drainfield or leaching bed but you will see that different authorities may recommend different distances. Local soil and rock conditions can make these “rules of thumb” unreliable.
How big of a drain field do I need?
The size of the drainfield is based on the number of bedrooms and soil characteristics, and is given as square feet. For example, the minimum required for a three bedroom house with a mid range percolation rate of 25 minutes per inch is 750 square feet.
What is the standard size of septic tank in the Philippines?
The three chamber septic tank will measure 3.1 meters (10 feet) by 1.9 meters (6 feet) and will be 2.1 meters deep (almost 7 feet). The tank will have a concrete slab on the bottom, filled, steel reinforced hollow block walls and a concrete top with clean-out ports.
What is the size of septic tank for 25 users?
Septic tank size for 25 users:- For 25 users, minimum/ standard size of septic tank could be 3.6m × 1.4m × 1.3m (12ft × 4.5ft × 4.25ft) in respect to their Length, breadth and depth.
Septic Tank – Components and Design of Septic Tank Based on Population
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What is Septic tank?
In terms of classification, a septic tank is a main sedimentation tank with a long detention duration (12 to 36hrs against a period of 2hrs in an ordinary sedimentation tank). Septic tanks are an excellent option for disposing of night soil in rural and urban locations that are not serviced by sewers. However, there should be enough water accessible since water is essential for the movement of the night soil from the latrine to the septic tank as well as for the effective operation of the septic tank.
The size of the septic tank is such that the sewage is A soak pit is often used to dispose of septic tank waste when there is no municipal drainage system in the region.
In the event that a municipal drainage system is in the vicinity, the effluent is released to the drain.
Figure 1: The Septic Tank in Action
Design of Septic Tank
The capacity of a septic tank is determined by the number of users and the frequency with which sludge is removed. Normal sludge removal should take place every two years. The liquid volume of the tank is estimated to be between 130 and 70 liters per head. For a limited number of users, 130 liters per person is required. A septic tank is often surrounded by a brick wall that is thick with cement mortar, and the foundation floor is made of cement concrete 1:2:4 in proportion. Both the inner and exterior faces of the wall, as well as the top of the floor, are plastered with a minimum thickness of 12mm (one-half inch) thick cementmortar 1:3 mix, with a maximum thickness of 24mm (one-half inch).
Water proofing chemicals, such as Impermo, Cem-seal, or Accoproof, among others, are added to the mortar at a rate of 2 percent of the cement weight, according to the manufacturer.
The floor of the septic tank is sloped from 1:10 to 120 degrees towards the input side in order to provide adequate ease in the collection and evacuation of sludge. As a result, the floor on the outlet side will be higher in elevation than the level on the inlet side of the building.
Dimensions of Septic Tank Components
The width is 750mm (min) Length = 2 to 4 times the width width Min below water level is between 1000 and 1300mm, and the free board is between 300 and 450mm. The maximum depth is 1800mm plus 450mm of freeboard. Capacity = 1 cubic meter (10 cubic feet) at the very least.
Septic tank design takes into account a detention time of 24 hours (for the most part). The rate of flow of effluent must be the same as the rate of flow of influent to be considered equal.
iii)Inlet and outlet pipes
To a depth of 250-600mm below the liquid’s surface level, an elbow or T pipe with a 100mm diameter is submerged. For the exit pipe, a 100mm diameter elbow or T type pipe is submerged to a depth of 200-500mm below the liquid level, depending on the design. Pipes made of stoneware or asbestos are possible.
iv)Baffle Walls of Septic Tank
The use of RCC hanging style scum baffle walls in septic tanks is recommended for smaller tanks. Near the intake, baffle barriers are installed for protection. It is only required near the outlet. It is recommended that the intake baffle wall be installed at a distance of L/5 from the wall, where L is the length of the wall. The baffle wall is often extended 150mm above the scum level and 400-700mm below it, depending on the situation. Because scum is light, it tends to float near the surface of the water in the tank.
v)Roofing Slab of Septic Tank
Septic tanks are covered with an RCC slab that ranges in thickness from 75mm to 100mm, depending on the size of the tank being covered. Inspection and desludging are carried out through circular manholes with a clear diameter of 500mm. Clear size is maintained at 600x450mm in the case of a rectangular aperture.
A cast iron or asbestos pipe with a diameter of 50-100mm is supplied for the discharge of bad gases and ventilation purposes, and it should extend 2m (minutes) above ground level. The top of the ventilation pipe is protected by a mosquito-proof wire tangle, which is also called a cowl. Sectional plan ZZ depicts the usual arrangement of a septic tank (see illustration). The Cross-Sectional Detail of a Septic Tank is depicted in Section XX.
Example – Design of Septic Tank for 20 Users
A cast iron or asbestos pipe with a diameter of 50-100mm is supplied for the discharge of bad gases and for ventilation purposes. The pipe should reach 2m (min) above ground level for maximum ventilation efficiency. It is furnished with a mosquito-proof wire mesh or cowl at the top of the ventilation pipe. A typical septic tank configuration is seen in Figure ZZ of the sectional plan ZZ. The Cross-Sectional Detail of a Septic Tank is shown in Section XX of this drawing.
Suitable Sizes of Septic Tank Based on Number of Persons
The following chart lists the appropriate sizes of septic tanks for households with 5, 10, 15, 20, and 50 people.
|No of users||Length L in m||Breath B in m||Liquid Depth in m||Liquid Capacity to be provided in m 3||Free Board in m||Sludge to be removed(m 3)||Interval Cleaning|
|5||1.5||0.75||1.0 1.05||1.12 1.18||0.3 0.3||0.36 0.72||1 year 2 year|
|10||2.0||0.9||1.0 1.4||1.8 2.0||0.3 0.3||0.72 1.44||1 year 2 year|
|15||2.0||0.9||1.3 2.0||2.3 3.6||0.3 0.3||1.08 2.16||1 year 2 year|
|20||2.3||1.1||1.3 1.8||3.3 4.6||0.3 0.3||1.44 2.88||1 year 2 year|
|50||4.0||1.4||1.3 2.0||7.3 11.2||0.3 0.3||3.60 7.20||1 year 2 year|
Septic Tank Design and Construction
Aseptic tank design must be thoroughly thought out and constructed such that it will not fracture and will not pollute ground water. Septic tank design and construction are discussed in this section, and building blueprints for a standard-sized tank are provided as well.
We will cover the characteristics of the tank, the necessity to estimate effluent levels, the tank intake and exit pipes, the transfer pipe between internal chambers, vent pipes, and the design of access manholes in order for the tank to be maintained and cleaned out. Likewise, see:
- Bacterial Action in a Septic Tank
- Septic Tank Size and Capacity
- Septic System Maintenance
- Septic System Cleaning
- Toilets and drains that are clogged
Septic Tank Design
Please go to the preceding page at if you need a refresher on how septic tanks function before continuing.
A Septic tank needs to be strong enough
A well-constructed septic tank will not leak and should be able to endure soil movements; nonetheless, many septic tanks in Indonesia are damaged and leaking due to poor construction. It is quite simple to underestimate the forces that a septic tank must bear in order to function properly. You may find individuals constructing septic tanks out of lightweight concrete blocks (batako), with a thin skim of cement applied to the inside of the tank. The smallest amount of ground movement, and most likely even the settlement caused by the tank’s construction, will be enough to cause it to fail completely.
- That is a significant amount of weight.
- Neither of these options is ideal.
- There are a lot of folks in the area who are constructing septic tanks who aren’t really sure how they function.
- I’m afraid we’ll be looking at a well-designed septic tank and discussing the aspects of its design.
How big a septic tank?
The first thing we need to figure out is how big the tank should be in terms of volume. There are various ways to figure this out, but using the charts at will help you to determine the size you will need to purchase. Let us assume that we require a tank with a capacity of 2.9 cubic metres (the quantity of effluent that the tank will contain), which is normal for a two-bedroom house with two bathrooms and four people living in it. A typical domestic septic tank, with a capacity of 2.88 cubic meters, is seen in the construction sketch below.
How many chambers?
A septic tank should contain at least two chambers; three chambers are preferable, but two chambers are sufficient. The size of the second chamber can be approximately half that of the first chamber. The first chamber of this tank has a liquid capacity of 1.92 cubic metres and is 1.2m x 1.0m x 1.6m deep. The second chamber has dimensions of 0.6m x 1.0m x 1.6m deep, with a capacity of 0.96 cu m, for a total capacity of 2.88 cubic metres. It is important to note that the depth of the effluent in the tank is 1.6 metres.
To view and download the complete drawing, please click on the picture.
The reinforcing steel is a mesh of 8 mm diameter reinforcing bars that are placed 15 cm (6 inches) apart and formed into a mesh box to provide structural support.
Septic Tank Construction
When casting the concrete, plywood formwork (shuttering) is put around the steel to form a box-shaped mould, which is then ready to be filled with concrete and cast around the steel. This should be set to ensure that the walls are 4 inches thick and that, when the concrete is poured, there will be a good thick coating of concrete on both sides of the steel mesh to prevent the steel from rusting, and that the steel mesh will be covered with a good thick layer of concrete. Additionally, a layer of sand should be placed beneath the concrete floor of the tank to allow for some movement when the tank settles and moves in the earth.
The tank’s 15cm (4 inch) diameter PVC inlet, transfer, and outlet pipes must be fitted before the concrete is poured in order for it to function properly.
Too much water should not be added (a slump of 7 is recommended) in order to produce a good firm concrete, and the concrete should be vibrated with a vibrator throughout the pouring process to ensure that it is correctly compacted and free of cavities or air holes.
However, while it may appear tough, following these simple recommendations will ensure that you have a tank that is properly constructed and will not leak or break in the near future.
Levels are very important
A box-shaped mould is formed around the steel when it is cast in concrete using plywood formwork (shuttering). The concrete is then poured into the box-shaped mould and allowed to cure for several hours before being removed. This should be set to ensure that the walls are 4 inches thick and that, when the concrete is poured, there will be a nice thick coating of concrete on both sides of the steel mesh to prevent the steel from rusting, and that the concrete will be poured in a circular pattern.
A 7.5cm (3 inch) diameter ventilation pipe is required to allow gas to move between the two chambers of the tank.
It is essential that the concrete is properly blended (the mix should be designed to suit the sand and other materials being used however if this is not possible then 3 parts aggregate: 2 parts good quality sand: 1 part of cement is good).
Additionally, the concrete should be vibrated with a vibrator throughout the pouring process to ensure that there are no cavities or air holes in the concrete.
However, while it may appear tough, following these simple recommendations will ensure that you have a tank that is properly constructed and will not leak or break in the near future. In this case, we have a concrete box with two chambers.
Inlet, Outlet and Transfer pipes
The plumbing is presently being installed. Take note of the relative placements of the inlet, outlet, and transfer pipes within the tank; the inlet pipe is slightly higher than the outlet pipe, and the transfer pipe is somewhat lower than both. These differences in relative heights are significant. There are 15cm (4 inch) tee pieces on both the inlet and outlet pipes as well as on both ends of the transfer pipe that connects the chambers in this tank design. These tee pieces help to keep the pipes clear of scum that forms on the surface of the effluent while it is being digested by the bacteria.
We want the water to flow through the tank as gently as possible.
This is done to ensure that liquid entering the pipe is drawn from the center level of the tank, which is below any turbulence and high enough to avoid being clogged by deposits at the bottom of the tank, rather than the sides or bottom of the tank.
Manholes and Vent Pipe
The top of the tank may now be installed; once again, a reinforced concrete slab measuring 15cm (4inches) thick will be employed. The top is equipped with a galvanized steel vent pipe with a diameter of 2 inches. As a result of this design, the pipe is more than 2 metres high, allowing any gases to be dispersed freely in the wind. It’s important to remember that a septic tank should not smell while it’s running correctly. There are also two manholes in the top of the structure. Normally, grout will be used to seal them, ensuring that they are gas tight.
Aside from that, the manholes provide access for pumping out the tank, which you may need to do once every five years or so, depending on your circumstances.
In these situations, it is not feasible to gain access to the tank in order to repair or unblock it if the need arises.
It is possible that certain contractors will make the manhole and its cover fit together with a tapered connection in select locations.
It is extremely difficult to create tapered joints that are both accurate and secure, making them tough to seal. Flat surfaces are far superior to rounded ones. Additionally, make certain that the manhole covers have steel grips that can be raised. Likewise, see:
- Bacterial Action in a Septic Tank
- Septic Tank Size and Capacity
- Septic System Maintenance
- Septic System Cleaning
- Toilets and drains that are clogged
Phil Wilson is the owner of the copyright. The month of October 2014 This article, or any part of it, may not be duplicated or reproduced without the express consent of the author or owner of the copyright.
Title 12. Health
Phil Wilson is the owner of the intellectual property rights. The month of October 2014 is a special month for me because If you want to replicate this article or any portion of it, you must get permission from the person who created it first.
|Table 5.2.Septic Tank Capacities for Dwelling Units.|
|No. of Bedrooms||Approximate Tank Volume in Gallons|
B. The tank’s physical dimensions. Septic tanks must be rectangular in shape in all three views: plan, cross-section, and longitudinal. The length to liquid depth to breadth ratio should be approximately equal to or more than 2 to 1 to 1 (2:1:1) and less than or equal to 3 to 1 to 1 (3:1:1), unless otherwise specified (3:1:1). The liquid depth must never be less than four feet or higher than eight feet in any circumstance. A minimum of one foot of free board must be given on each side. The tank’s inlet and outflow structures must be positioned parallel to the tank’s longitudinal axis.
|Table 5.3.Typical Septic Tank Dimensions in Feet.|
|Approximate Gallons||Length||Width||Liquid Depth||Freeboard|
C. The structure of the inlet and outflow. 1. A general statement. The inlet and outlet structures are intended to perform the function of a baffle. In order to accommodate the tank, the invert of the inlet structure must be larger than one inch but less than two inches higher than the invert of the outflow structure while both structures are in use together. Six to eight inches below, and eight to ten inches above, the typical liquid level, respectively, must be the length of the intake structure.
- The inlet and outlet structures must have an open area that is not less than four inches by four inches in cross-section or four inches in diameter, whichever is greater.
- All materials used in the construction of inlet and outlet structures must be resistant to chemical and electrolytic corrosion over an extended period of time.
- All septic tanks must be waterproof and equipped with a watertight top in order to function properly.
- When the septic tank has more than 30 inches of soil cover, an access manhole must be brought to within 18 inches of the ground surface and be equipped with a tight-fitting cover to prevent the septic tank from overflowing.
- Septic tanks must be designed and constructed by the contractor or manufacturer to resist the estimated lateral and bearing loads to which they will be subjected over the course of their operation.
- The tank must be positioned on a flat surface.
Whenever excavation is necessary, the hole must be large enough to accommodate the tank’s installation. Septic tank excavations must be backfilled in stages with appropriate tamping to prevent the soil from settling. There must be no huge stones or debris present in the backfill material.
Manhole Lid Form For Septic Tanks
Accessories/Manhole Lid Form For Septic Tanks/Concrete Forms/Septic Tank Forms/Manhole Lid Form For Septic Tanks All Del Zotto Concrete Manhole and Inspection Hole Forms are constructed of strong gauge spun steel, which ensures smooth stripping and a consistent shape throughout time. Both of these sorts of formations have the same proportions, as seen below:
- The outside diameter is 28 inches, the inside diameter is 24 inches, and the height is 6 inches.
- You’ll never have to worry about failing inspections when you work with Del Zotto. We do our homework to ensure your success, which is why our septic tank forms are customized to meet the needs of your state or municipality’s code regulations. Our forms are quick and simple to set up, and they are meant to be used continuously by a single person. What does this mean for you and your family? Labor time and money are saved by 40% compared to the national average. Find Out More
Inspection Hole Cover Form
- All Del Zotto Manhole and Inspection Hole Forms are constructed of strong gauge spun steel, which ensures smooth stripping and a consistent shape for the life of the product. Find Out More
Septic Tank Lid Form
- Forms for Casting Perimeter Lids. Elevated Lid Casting Decks are available in either standard or traffic-rated versions. In addition to septic tanks, the Deck may be used for other pre-cast things such as retaining walls and retaining walls. Find Out More
How a Septic System Works
|The septic system is a sewage treatment and disposal system.A basic system consists of a septic tank and drainage area. All flows from the house are directed by way of a main sewer line to the septic tank. 40% of household sewage is from the toilet, 30% is from bathing, 15% is from laundry and 10% is from the kitchen.
What is a Septic Tank?
The septic tank is a watertight chamber constructed of concrete or poly material. An average size is approximately 1000 gallons to 1500 gallons in capacity. Most septic tanks have one or two compartments. Two compartment tanks, or two single compartment tanks in series, provide better settling of the solids.Each septic tank has an inspection port over each baffle as well as a manhole access port. The manhole lid needs to be accessed for the tank to be pumped. These can be found at or below the ground surface.
The inlet baffle forces the wastewater from the sewer line down into the tank instead of across the surface of the tank and into the outlet pipe leading to the absorption area.
In a properly functioning septic tank the solids and sludge settle to the bottom and accumulate, scum (lightweight materials including paper, fats and greases) rises to the surface and the effluent (liquid) in the tank existing between those layers overflows to the absorption area.
|The absorption area uses the ability of the stone and soil to filter and treat the remaining effluent.
Examples of absorption areas are seepage beds, trenches, sand mounds or older cesspools / seepage pits.
Cesspools are no longer an installation choice but there are many properties that still have functioning cesspools.