Which is the best septic tank cleaning company in Mobile Alabama?
- Alabama Tank Services is an excellent septic tank cleaning business. They are the dependable septic system service providers in Mobile, AL, and giving them a call is a great idea. They are one of the highly preferred septic tank cleaning companies in Mobile, AL.
Who regulates septic systems in Alabama?
In Alabama, onsite sewage systems are regulated by the Department of Public Health’s Division of Community Environmental Protection (CEP). They work in conjunction with county health departments and the Onsite Wastewater Management Board.
Are septic tank locations public record?
Contact your local health department for public records. These permits should come with a diagram of the location where the septic system is buried. Depending on the age of your septic system, you may be able to find information regarding the location of your septic system by making a public records request.
What are the new septic tank regulations?
Under the new rules, if you have a specific septic tank that discharges to surface water (river, stream, ditch, etc.) you are required to upgrade or replace your septic tank treatment system to a full sewage treatment plant by 2020, or when you sell a property, if it’s prior to this date.
Which government agency monitors septic tanks and private sewage disposal systems in Alabama?
Septic Tank Systems | Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH)
Are plastic septic tanks legal in Alabama?
Alabama Plastic Septic Tanks Tanks listed 1000 gallons and up are approved for use in the state of Alabama.
How much does it cost to pump a septic tank in Alabama?
It will cost between $350 and $550 to have your septic tank pumped.
How do I find out where my septic tank is located?
Follow the Main Sewer Line Look for a pipe that’s roughly four inches in diameter that leads away from your house. Remember the location of the sewer pipe and where the pipe leaves your home so you can find it outside. The sewer pipes will lead to where your septic tank is located.
How do I find out if my septic tank is registered?
Check if your septic tank is already registered You can check if your tank has already been registered by contacting your environmental regulator. If you are unsure then it is best to check and avoid making an unnecessary payment. The NIEA and SEPA have records of all registered septic tanks.
How do I know if my house has a septic tank?
A surefire way to confirm whether or not your home has a septic system is to check your property records. It is likely that the building permit and blueprints for your home and property will contain information about the presence (or lack) of a septic tank.
Is my septic tank illegal?
No, septic tanks aren’t going to be banned. Septic tanks do a good job of holding back solids and separating solids from liquid, they also offer a small degree of biological cleaning, however the waste that is discharged from them is still very high in ammonia and requires treatment before entering the environment.
Do I need permission to install a septic tank?
The short answer is yes. You will need planning permission from a local authority in order to have a septic tank installed, no matter if it’s at your own home or on a business site.
Do I need a certificate for a septic tank?
The General Binding Rules were designed to simplify the regulation of small sewage discharges. Septic tanks and small sewage treatment plants no longer need to be registered and there is no legal requirement to keep records of maintenance (although this is advisable).
Can you build your own septic tank in Alabama?
Alabama state law requires home- owners to get a permit from the local health department before putting in a new system or before repairing an existing system. Alabama state law requires septic tank installers and pumpers to be licensed by the Alabama Onsite Wastewater Board.
Can I do my own perc test in Alabama?
In Alabama there are 4 types of professionally licensed persons that are legally allowed to conduct a percolation test: engineers, land surveyors, professional soil classifiers, and professional geologists. When soils do not percolate quickly or fully, then landowners must have an engineered system.
How much field line do I need for a septic tank?
A typical septic drainfield trench is 18 to 30 inches in depth, with a maximum soil cover over the disposal field of 36″; or per the USDA, 2 feet to 5 feet in depth.
Environmental Health – Mobile County Health Department
The address is 1110 Schillinger Rd N200 in Mobile, Alabama 36608. On Monday through Friday, you may find us just adjacent to the Jon Archer Agricultural Center (1110 Schillinger Road North). 7:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 251.634.9801
- Solid waste inspections
- Onsite system verification and certification
- Septic tank licenses and inspections
- Subdivision permission
The Onsite Sewage section of the Mobile County Health Department is responsible for regulating the permitting, installation, and inspection of onsite sewage disposal systems (septic tanks) for all of Mobile County, including both residential and commercial properties. Pumpers for septic and sewage tanks are regulated on-site, and a yearly examination of the pump truck is required before it may be used. The Alabama Onsite Wastewater Board requires that all individuals who work in the onsite sewage disposal systems business get a license.
Environmental Services – Mobile County Health Department
The Onsite Sewage section of the Mobile County Health Department oversees the permitting, installation, and inspection of onsite sewage disposal systems (septic tanks) for all of Mobile County, including residential and commercial properties. Pumpers for septic and sewage tanks are regulated on-site, and the pump truck must be inspected annually before it may be used. The Alabama Onsite Wastewater Board requires that all individuals working in the onsite sewage disposal systems business get a license.
Septic Tank Systems
Septic tank systems are small-scale wastewater treatment systems that collect, treat, and dispose of wastewater. They are used to collect, treat, and dispose of wastewater. They are dependable, cost-effective, and efficient in their operation. Septic tank systems are utilized in areas where municipal sewers are not accessible or are prohibitive to install. They are also used in rural areas. Generally speaking, your septic tank system is made up of four parts: the septic tank, the effluent filter, the distribution box or Flow Divider (if applicable), and the effluent disposal field (also known as the drain field).
It is beneficial to have an effluent filter installed in your septic tank because it allows the partially digested solid solids to remain in the tank longer.
When you have wastewater in your distribution box, it is divided into equal halves and sent to a drain field for treatment.
Wastewater is channeled into level trenches that are lined with gravel and pipes. These ditches serve as a conduit for wastewater to seep into the surrounding soil. The soil purifies the wastewater, allowing it to be recycled back into the groundwater underneath it.
Where is Your Septic Tank?
In order to keep your system in good working condition, the tank must be accessible for pumping and the drain field must be well covered. The challenge of locating your system is not always straightforward. You should call your county health department to obtain a copy of your septic tank system permit, which will specify the approximate location of the system as well as the size and capacity of the tank. It is expected that the completed permit (also known as the Approval for Use) would include a schematic of the actual system installation as well as additional information regarding your system.
Septic Tank Maintenance offers advice on how to keep your septic tank system in good working order.
Septic Tank Maintenance
All septic tank installers and pumpers in Alabama are required to hold a license issued by the Alabama Onsite Wastewater Board, according to state law. Licensed technicians may be located on the Alabama Onsite Wastewater Board website, which can be accessed here. Every three to five years, you should contact a professional specialist to clean your septic tank and effluent filter. Groundwater pollution may be prevented by performing routine maintenance on your system. This will extend the life of your system and prevent costly repairs.
When the filter detects that the system requires maintenance, it will alert you.
Septic tank systems that are failing can cause the following problems:
- Health of you and your family
- Damage the environment, lowering the value of your home
- And being difficult and expensive to fix
Signs of Potential System Problems
- Wet places in the yard
- Toilets or drains that are slow to drain
- Gurgling sounds coming from your drains
- Sewage aromas
- And more.
Do’s and Don’ts
- Do – Conserve water in order to limit the quantity of wastewater that must be processed and disposed of by your wastewater treatment and disposal system. Doing laundry over a period of many days will reduce the amount of stress placed on your system. Do – Fix any leaking faucets or toilets that you may have. In order to discover toilet leaks, place few drops of food dye in the toilet tank and see whether any dye ends up in the bowl. Don’t forget to divert roof drainage, downspouts, and any other surface water away from your drain field as well! Water in excess prevents the soil from fully cleaning the wastewater
- Excessive water Do – The next time your tank is pumped, install an effluent filter to catch the waste. Carry out an annual inspection and frequent pumpouts of your septic tank with the help of an experienced, certified septic tank contractor. For recommended pumping frequencies, please see the chart on our website. Make your septic tank cover easily accessible for inspections and pumping by constructing waterproof risers to ground level with secure lids. What to Do – Contact your county health department or a qualified septic tank contractor anytime you have difficulties with your system or notice any indicators of system failure
- Make sure to keep meticulous records of all repairs, pumpings, inspections, and other maintenance tasks. These should be passed on to the future homeowner
- The following items should not be flushed or dumped: coffee grounds
- Disposable diapers
- Sanitary napkins
- Cigarette butts
- Kitchen scraps
- Dental floss
- Cat litter
- Paper towels
- Waste oils
- Or pesticides. You should not: – Drive over your drain field or compress the dirt in any manner
- And Keep it out of the ground – Do not dig in your drain field or construct anything on top of it, and do not cover it with a hard surface such as concrete or asphalt. Also, avoid putting in subsurface utilities or sprinkler systems in the vicinity. Not to Plant Anything Other Than Grass – Do not plant anything else over or near the drain field. Branches and roots from adjacent trees and bushes may obstruct and harm the drain pipes. Installing a swimming pool near your system is not a good idea. Don’t use a garbage disposal, or at the very least minimize your use of one. Disposals increase the amount of solids in your tank by around 50%, requiring you to pump your tank more frequently than is generally recommended. Using your toilet as a trash can, or poisoning your system and groundwater by dumping dangerous chemicals and cleaners down the drain, are also prohibited practices. Chemicals that are too harsh might kill the microorganisms that aid in the purification of your wastewater. Don’t – Spend money on septic tank chemicals that aren’t necessary. The microorganisms required for wastewater treatment can be found in abundance in sewage. Additives can cause sediments to re-suspend, resulting in a blockage in your drain field. Pumping your tank on a regular basis is still necessary even if you use additives. It is not permissible to allow backwash from household water softeners to enter the septic system. Entering a septic tank is not recommended. Toxic gases emitted from the tank have the potential to kill. Obtain counsel from your county health agency or a certified septic tank contractor in the event that your system begins to malfunction.
View our Homeowner’s Guide and Record Keeping Folder to keep track of your maintenance and for additional information on how to maintain your septic system. The most recent update was made on May 13, 2021.
Alabama Department of Environmental Management
In order for ADEM to properly resolve your complaint, you must supply the information asked below to them. Your name, address, phone number, and email address are not necessary to be submitted on this form. Once you have completed the form and submitted it, you will be provided with a Complaint that you can use to follow the status and progress of your complaint. If you include your email address in your electronic complaint submission, you will receive an email when your complaint has been reviewed and activated as well as when your concerns have been evaluated/investigated and a determination has been made regarding the validity of the complaint or the Department’s ability to address the complaint, or when the Department has taken preliminary action to address the complaint.
Viewing the complaintdocument(s) and any other associated documents that may belong to the facility/site of concern can be done through the Department’s eFile website ().
This might take anything from several days to a week. Continue to check in to see if your complaint has been placed into the processing stage. Please take notice of the following:
- When a complaint has been seen, it is necessary to file a complaint. It is necessary to provide a detailed description of the complaint. It is necessary to have an affected environment
- It is necessary to have a county
3 Best Septic Tank Services in Mobile, AL – Expert Recommendations
Since 1999Here’s How It Works: Billy’s Septic Services is a locally owned and operated business that specializes in the installation, repair, and maintenance of residential and commercial septic systems. They are always professional, on time, and pleasant in their interactions with you. You can rely on Billy’s for all of your septic needs, whether you are now suffering an issue or are attempting to prevent one from arising in the future. For mortgages, the firm provides “open tank” septic inspections, which include pumping the septic tank, doing a stress test on the field lines, and completing all necessary documentation.
FILTER CLEANING AND PROPER MAINTENANCE; RISER INSTALLATIONS; Effluent pump repairs and pumping; Lift Stations; Site clearing and inspections; Unused Tanks filled and replaced; Tank Lids; Minor-Moderate Excavation; Field Line; AbandonedFloats; Switchbillyssepticservices.com Reviews|Submit Your Own Review
TBR ®Inspection Report:
Since 2017Here’s How It Works: Quality Septic LLC is dedicated to providing the highest level of customer care in the septic tank pumping and drain cleaning industries. The staff is grateful for the opportunity to serve you and will make every effort to ensure that you are completely happy. Quality Septic LLC is a limited liability corporation that provides septic services in the Mobile county area. The baffles at the entrance and exit of your septic tank are inspected by the service firm. To have your septic tanks drained, field lines repaired, or a new system installed, give them a call right now.
They decided to create this firm as a result of a terrible encounter.
AREA OF EXPERTISE:Damaged Field Lines Replacement; Hair Removal; Repair; Food; Pumping; Installation; Wipes; Clogged; Drain; Septic Tank Outlet Filter Cleaning; Inspection; Roots from Septic System; Grease; Open-Tank Inspections; Structural Integrity of the Tank is being assessed at this time.
TBR ®Inspection Report:
Lowndes County, Alabama, which is located between the cities of Selma and Montgomery, has been dealing with fundamental sewage problems for decades. The majority of the county’s people, who are overwhelmingly poor and black, live too far away from cities to be able to connect their homes to sewer systems. As a result, they are reliant on septic tanks. It’s more difficult to construct and operate such septic systems – not just because they are expensive, but also because they must be particularly engineered to function in the region’s clay-rich soil.
- Neither the county nor the state appear to be in a position to assist, and at times, it is possible that they have made matters worse rather than better.
- Following the discovery of hookworm in more than a third of the population of Lowell County by Baylor University researchers, a United Nations poverty investigator visited the region in December.
- “I believe it is quite rare in the First World.
- “I’d have to say that this is something I’ve never seen before,” said Philip Alston, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights, while on a tour of a neighbouring county.
- However, they have been slower to acknowledge the extent to which the problem of inadequate sewage treatment exists in the United States.
- Several rural towns are dealing with the same issue,” says Catherine Flowers, who has been the area’s most prominent champion for improved sewage disposal and addressing the difficulties that have arisen as a result of it.
- Flowers has spoken with activists from about a dozen states that are grappling with comparable concerns, including Alaska, California, Kentucky, and Virginia, among others.
It is believed that they are a hazard to dolphins and other aquatic species in the state of Florida.
Flowers points out that one thing that many of the neighborhoods have in common is that they are already impoverished and occupied by members of disadvantaged communities.
Flores, who previously worked for the county in an effort to promote economic development, describes the situation as “challenging” since the area lacks the infrastructure to support new business initiatives.
To put it another way, the county stayed poor because it was already poor to begin with.
Alabama is the sixth-poorest state in the United States, according to the Census Bureau.
Infrastructure upgrades, particularly for individual dwellings, are too expensive for the government to cover the majority of the cost. Activists are appealing to Congress and outside entrepreneurs for answers as a result of these developments.
Making a Bad Situation Worse
The county and the state have both contributed to the escalation of this situation over time. Over 37 households were threatened with imprisonment by the authorities in 2002 due to poor sewage treatment. (According to Alabama state law, it is a crime to “construct, operate, or utilize an unsanitary sewage collecting, treatment, or disposal system.”) However, the majority of them were unable to afford to invest thousands of dollars on equipment upgrades. Residents demonstrated their dissatisfaction with the strong enforcement measures used to compel them to install new sewage systems, and judges found it difficult to compel them.
- With the agreement, Flowers’ AlabamaCenter for Rural Enterprise, a nonprofit organization that he created, pledged to assist residents in the installation of new septic systems in collaboration with the state health department.
- Unlike most of the country, the sorts of septic systems that operate in most locations don’t work adequately in the Black Belt, which is a stretch of central Alabama and northeast Mississippi noted for its dark, rich soil and huge population of African-American citizens.
- When it comes to eliminating the most harmful toxins, they rely on natural filtering of the soil.
- As a result of the failure of the new methods, campaigners in Alabama determined that they required a deeper understanding of the fundamental issues.
- They learned that the situation was far more complicated than many people had previously thought.
- Septic systems that had already been installed were also failing at an alarming pace.
- Despite these problems, the vast majority of individuals did not lodge formal complaints with government officials.
- So people should refrain from complaining since, at the end of the day, they will be held accountable and may even be arrested “Flowers expresses himself in this way:
Flowers had an up-close and personal experience with the possible health repercussions of inadequate sanitation some years prior. It was October when she paid a visit to the house of a young, pregnant lady who was the subject of an investigation by the local authorities. Flowers took a stroll around the back of the home and noticed a pool of raw sewage in the yard, complete with insects buzzing over it. She describes it as an unexpected sight because, even in Alabama, October is often the end of mosquito season, according to her.
- Flowers requested that her doctor do tests to see whether she had caught an infection from the mosquitoes near the raw sewage, but the results came back negative.
- Soon after, she was in Atlanta, conversing with the author, and the ideas for the hookworm research arose as a result of their discussions.
- They discovered hookworm evidence in 19 out of the 55 residents that were examined.
- The application of one notion.
- As more powerful diagnostic procedures become available, the emergence of uncommon, endemic illnesses may become less limited by geographic location and more characterized by socioeconomic level, the authors speculated in their article.
(According to their publication, the Baylor researchers’ methodology was more sensitive and, as a result, could identify lower levels of infection than the one employed by McIntyre. )
With little possibility of receiving state or local resources to address the issues in the near future, the area is asking for outside assistance. Many colleges and government agencies have dispatched researchers to the 17 counties of Alabama’s Black Belt in order to gain a better understanding of the scale of the problem and how it is harming the local ecology. Between conversations with Kartik Chandran, a ColumbiaUniversity environmental engineering professor and recipient of a MacArthur genius award, Flowers has been working on a new book.
- According to Chandran, the challenges that Alabama’s Black Belt is experiencing are comparable to those that many towns throughout the world are experiencing, particularly in areas where it is not feasible to install sewage lines or construct wastewater treatment facilities.
- However, pollution controls for septic systems are often more permissive than those for large sewage systems, which implies that they cause more contamination than large sewer systems.
- Increasing the amount of waste that is treated in buildings and, if possible, connecting additional houses to sewer systems, according to Chandran, may be the solution in Alabama.
- It’s essential that we get there and find an all-encompassing answer.
- Cory Booker, a Democrat from New Jersey, has paid a visit to LowndesCounty to learn more about the sanitation challenges that exist there.
“These are our children and old people who are exposed to a harmful environment.” As recently as last month, Booker collaborated with newly elected Democratic Senator Doug Jones of Alabama and Republican Senator Shelley Moore Capito of West Virginia to allow low- and middle-income homeowners to take advantage of a federal grant program to assist them in installing or maintaining septic systems.
In the Infrastructure bulletin, there is a mention of this.
America Has a Sewage Problem
Catherine Flowers has been leading a lonely and stressful campaign in Alabama’s Black Belt for the installation and improvement of septic tanks, a simple but critical piece of infrastructure for the area’s remote dwellings, for more than 15 years. Efforts to improve sewage treatment in Lowndes County, Alabama, began in 2002, shortly after officials in the Black Belt threatened to arrest two dozen homeowners for failing to provide appropriate sewage treatment, which is a misdemeanor under Alabama law.
- They were unable to pay the thousands of dollars required to build new underground sewage tanks since the majority of the population were black and impoverished.
- Septic tanks, which work by spreading tainted water through the earth for filtration, have a difficult time functioning because to the presence of layers of chalk and silt that trap water and prevent it from penetrating farther into the ground.
- Systems designed specifically for the geology of the Black Belt can cost more than $6,000, more than twice the price of a normal septic system.
- Despite the hurdles, many people choose not to build septic systems, instead opting to simply run a pipe from their homes to a nearby ditch.
- Untreated sewage pools in people’s yards emit a nasty odor that is difficult to ignore.
- The exposure has the potential to have serious repercussions for the health of inhabitants.
- On the next day, she came out in a rash all over her body, which didn’t completely go away for several months.
She recruited experts from Baylor College of Medicine to conduct an investigation on the possibility of a recurrence of tropical illnesses in the region.
Flowers had been attempting for a long time to get public notice when he made his discovery.
So thought a United Nations official who was conducting research on severe poverty in the United States.
Cory Booker and recently elected U.S.
Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez of New York, came together to support the campaign.
Septic system difficulties were not exotic tales from foreign lands; rather, they were all-too-familiar occurrences that occurred directly in their own backyards and neighborhoods.
Algae blooms caused by leaking septic tanks have forced the closure of beaches on Long Island, New York.
Flowers points out that one of the most noticeable aspects of the situation is how many people are affected by wastewater problems who are impoverished or who belong to historically oppressed groups.
“I believe the problem is more widespread than we recognize,” Flowers asserts.
Over the years, rural communities have turned a blind eye to this problem.
As a result of population increase and urban sprawl, the number of systems is growing rapidly.
Septic tanks are frequently installed in suburban neighborhoods by developers to save money on the expense of sewer hookups.
The effects of climate change may be seen in the flooding of drain fields caused by strong storms, the rising of groundwater levels in coastal regions, and the proliferation of tropical illnesses in exposed pools of sewage due to increased temperatures.
Septic system repair and replacement are becoming increasingly expensive, and officials at both the state and local levels are grappling with how to protect people’s health while also protecting the environment without burdening low-income residents with the high costs of repairing or replacing their systems.
(AP) It was not Joan Rose’s intention when she began researching watersheds in her home state of Michigan a few years ago that she would be focusing on septic systems.
Rose discovered a significant amount of pollution caused by humans when researching 64 watersheds in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula.
Nevertheless, she explains, “the only connection we were able to uncover was with the rising number of septic tanks.” Rose observed that even “operational” septic tanks were incapable of filtering out all of the pollutants that were intended to be kept out of lakes, streams, and rivers in the first place.
The fact that viruses, nutrients, and bacteria are among the pollutants that migrate through the soil has been recognized recently, says the author.
They divide the trash into three layers: scum, sludge, and wastewater.
Bacteria gradually break down the scum that accumulates at the top of the tank, while sludge settles at the base.
It then drains into subterranean pipelines near the tank, where it is discharged onto the earth in a section known as the drain field.
However, the majority of them are designed to merely filter out disease-causing bacteria and viruses.
In her speech, Rose informed citizens of Michigan that their septic systems were not particularly effective in removing pathogens.
However, her research did not uncover this level of information.
The state of Michigan is the only one in the country that does not have a statewide statute that regulates septic tanks, which means that the duty of keeping track of them falls to the individual counties.
The fact that a river passes across numerous counties makes it difficult to keep track of all the septic systems that may have an influence on it.
“We don’t know the scope of the problem,” says Deena Bosworth, director of governmental relations for the Michigan Association of Counties.
The most recent attempt failed because the measure would have had an impact on the dozen or so counties that currently mandate septic system inspections when homes are being sold, which led to its failure.
In Bosworth’s opinion, “statewide criteria are not out of line.” Local governments, on the other hand, should have the ability to be more restricted if they so choose.
Suffolk County, located on the eastern side of the island across the sound from Connecticut, is home to 1.5 million people and approximately 365,000 underground sewage tanks, according to the United States Geological Survey.
Beaches have been blocked due to algae outbreaks.
Furthermore, pollution may have exacerbated the effects of Hurricane Sandy by removing coastal vegetation and wetlands that may have served as a natural barrier against the storm.
They require room for their drain fields, which means that they are typically utilized for tiny structures close to vacant ground, limiting the area’s capacity to develop densely packed developments in the future.
A sewage project in two regions of the county received approval from voters in January, according to Bellone, and it is estimated that it will service 6,400 properties in some of the county’s most environmentally vulnerable areas for $360 million.
By repairing natural storm barriers, county officials hoped to lessen the effect of future catastrophes.
Water quality and contamination have deteriorated dramatically over the previous four decades, wreaking havoc on marshlands, wetlands, and seagrass, according to Bellone.
In the majority of cases, however, the cost of installing sewer systems is prohibitively expensive for either property owners or the county as a public utility.
Qualifying residents will be eligible for grants of $11,000 to pay the cost of upgrading their systems, as well as low-interest loans to cover the remainder of the cost.
Residents in the county, according to Bellone, have begun to see the necessity for such steps.
The adage “out of sight, out of mind” is particularly appropriate in this situation.
They have no idea how old their septic system is or how well it is functioning.
Flowers’ efforts to raise awareness about the situation in Lowndes County, Alabama, have garnered a great deal of attention.
Residential customers would be required to pay a one-time installation price of $500 or $1,000, depending on the kind of septic system used, in addition to a $20 monthly fee.
In a recent interview, Flowers spoke with Kartik Chandran, an environmental engineering professor at Columbia University, whose research focuses on how to use human waste, other wastewater, and agricultural fertilizers to generate energy and produce fertilizers for crops.
Together with Earthjustice, an environmental law firm, she filed a civil rights complaint against the Lowndes County Health Department and the Alabama Department of Public Health, alleging violations of her civil rights.
The complaint is now in the hands of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, which will decide whether or not to launch an inquiry of its own into the matter.
Her conclusion: “The bottom line is that agencies are required to clean up raw sewage that has accumulated on the ground.” Flowers is keeping an eye on the big picture, even as she tries to cope with the crises in her immediate area of responsibility.
If Lowndes County is able to resolve the issue, she believes that people in other communities will be able to benefit from their experience. “This isn’t simply a localized problem.” “These situations are occurring all throughout the United States,” she claims, “but nobody has looked into them.”